Efecto de rapoport en las ranas terrarana de américa continental: gradientes de riqueza latitudinal y altitudinal.

  • Juan Carlos García-R Universidad del Valle
  • Heiber Cárdenas Universidad del Valle

Resumen

Se examinó los patrones latitudinales y altitudinales del tamaño de rango de 640 especies de ranas Terrarana para probar la regla de Rapoport como explicación a los gradientes de riqueza de  especies.  Las especies de altas latitudes no necesariamente poseen mayor  extensión latitudinal  que las especies  de bajas latitudes, y, contrario a lo que predice la regla a nivel altitudinal, las especies de altas elevaciones tienen menor rango altitudinal que las especies de bajas elevaciones. Sin embargo, en el Hemisferio Norte se observó una inflexión en el tamaño del rango latitudinal desde los 15º, encontrándose a partir de ahí una tendencia entre la latitud y el tamaño de la distribución geográfica de las especies. En general, los patrones espaciales de extensión latitudinal y altitudinal en este grupo de ranas de América no siguen la regla de Rapoport, es decir que la regla no contribuye a los patrones de riqueza de éstas ranas.

 

Palabras clave: Altitud, Latitud, regla de Rapoport, riqueza de especies, tamaños de rango, Terrarana

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Citas

Blackburn, T. M. y K. J. Gaston. 1996. Spatial patterns in the geographic range sizes of bird species in the New World. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B., 351: 897–912.

Brown, J. H. 1995. Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 270 pp.

Brown, J. H. 2001. Mammals on mountainsides: elevational patterns of diversity. Global Ecology and Biodiversity, 10: 101–109.

Brown, J. H. y M. V. Lomolino. 1998. Biogeography. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass. 692 pp.

Colwell, R. K. y G. C. Hurtt. 1994. Nonbiological gradients in species richness and a spurious Rapoport effect. American Naturalist, 144: 570–595.

Diniz-Filho, J. y N. Tôrres. 2002. Rapoport effect in South American carnivora (Mammalia): null models under geometric and phylogenetic constraints. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 62 (3): 437-444.

Frost, D. 2009. Amphibian Species of the World an Online Reference. Version 5.3 (12 February 2009). Electronic Database.

http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amp hibia/index.php. Consultada el 11 Marzo de 2009.

Gaston, K. J. 1996. Species range-size distributions: patterns, mechanisms and implications. Trends in ecology and evolution, 11: 197–201.

Gaston, K.J. 1999. Why Rapoport’s rule does not generalize. Oikos, 84: 309-312.

Gaston, K.J. y T.M. Blackburn. 1999. A critique for macroecology. Oikos, 84: 353-368.

Gaston, K.J. y T.M. Blackburn. 2000. Pattern and Process in Macroecology. Blackwell Science, Oxford. 377 pp.

Gaston, K. J. y S. L. Chown. 1999. Why Rapoport’s rule does not generalize. Oikos, 84: 309–312.

Gaston, K., T. Blackburn y J. Spicer. 1998. Rapoport’s rule: Time for an epitaph?. Trends in ecology and evolution, 13(2): 70-74.

Gotelli, N. y G. Graves. 1996. Null models in Ecology. Smithsonian Institution Press Washington. 368 pp.

Harcourt, A. H. 2000. Latitude and latitudinal extent: a global analysis of the Rapoport effect in a tropical mammalian taxon: primates. Journal of Biogeography, 27: 1169–1182.

Heaney, L.R. 2001. Small mammal diversity along elevational gradients in the Philippines: an assessment of patterns and hypotheses. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10: 15–39.

Hedges, B., W. Duellman y M. Heinicke. 2008. New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa, 1737: 1-182.

Heinicke, M., W. Duellman y B. Hedges. 2007. Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104 (24): 10092-10097.

Husak, M. S. y A. Husak. L. 2003. Latitudinal patterns in range sizes of new world woodpeckers. The Southwestern Naturalist, 48 (1): 61-69.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The World Conservation Union.2009. Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org.

Kendall, V. J. y R. Haedrich. 2006. Species richness in Atlantic deep-sea fishes assessed in terms of the mid-domain effect and Rapoport’s rule. Elsevier, 53: 506-515.

Kerr, J. T. 1998. Weak links: ‘Rapoport’s rule’ and large scale species richness patterns. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 8: 47-54.

Letcher, A. J. y P. H. Harvey. 1994. Variation in geographical range size among mammals of the Palearctic. American Naturalist, 144: 30–42.

Lynch, J. D. 1998. New species of Eleutherodactylus from the Cordillera Occidental of western Colombia with a synopsis of the distributions of species in western Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias, 22 (82): 117-148.

Lynch J. D. 1999. Ranas pequeñas, la geometría de evolución y la especiación en los Andes colombianos. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias, 23 (86): 143-159.

Lynch, J. D. y W. E. Duellman. 1997. Frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus in western Ecuador: systematics, ecology, and biogeography. The University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Special Publication, 23: 1 - 236.

Lyons, S. y M. Willig. 1997. Latitudinal patterns of range size: methodological concerns and empirical evaluations for New World bats and marsupials. Oikos, 79: 568 - 580.

McCain, C. M. 2005. Elevational gradients in diversity of small mammals. Ecology, 86: 366 - 372.

Mittelbach, G. G., D. W. Schemske, H. V. Cornell, et al. 2007. Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography. Ecology Letters, 10: 315 - 331.

Padial, J. M., C-F. Santiago y R. Ignacio. 2009. The phylogenetic relationships of Yunganastes revisited (Anura: Terrarana). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 52: 911 - 915.

Pagel, M. D., R. M. May y A. R. Collie. 1991. Ecological aspects of the geographical distribution and diversity of mammalian species. American Naturalist, 137: 791 -815.

Patterson, B.D., V. Pacheco y S. Solari. 1996. Distribution of bats along an elevation gradient in the Andes of south-eastern Peru. Journal of Zoology, 240: 637–658.

Rahbek, C. 1995. The elevational gradient of species richness: a uniform pattern? Ecography, 18: 200 - 205.

Rohde, K. 1996. Rapoport’s rule is a local phenomenon and cannot explain latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity Letters, 3: 10 - 13.

Rohde, K., M. Heap y D. Heap. 1993. Rapoport’s rule does not apply to marine teleosts and can not explain latitudinal gradients in species richness. American Naturalist, 142: 1 - 16.

Rosenzweig, M. 1995. Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 436 pp.

Roy, K., D. Jablonski, J. W. Valentine y D G. Rosenberg. 1998. Marine latitudinal diversity gradients: tests of causal hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 91: 3699 - 3702.

Smith, F., R. May y P. Harvey. 1994. Geographical ranges of Australian mammals. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63:441 - 450.

Smith, S., A. Nieto, T. Reeder y J. Wiens. 2007. A phylogenetic perspective on elevational species richness patterns in middle America treefrogs: why so few species in lowland tropical rainforest?. Evolution, 61 (5): 1188 - 1207.

StatSoft, Inc. 2004. STATISTICA (data analysis software system). Ver. 7. www.statsoft.com

Stevens, G. C. 1989. The latitudinal gradient in geographical range: how so many species coexist in the tropics. American Naturalist, 133: 240 - 256.

Stevens, G. C. 1992. The elevational gradient in altitudinal range: an extension of Rapoport’s latitudinal rule to altitude. American Naturalist, 140: 893 - 911.

Stevens, G. C. y B. J. Enquist. 1998. Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Pp. 183-190. En: Richardsons D. M. (Ed.). Macroecological limits to the abundance and distribution of the genus Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 527 pp.

Terborgh, J. 1973. On the notion of favourableness in plant ecology. American Naturalist, 107: 481 - 501.

Terborgh, J. 1977. Bird species diversity on an Andean elevational gradient. Ecology, 58: 1007 - 1019.

Wiens, J. 2007. Global patterns of diversification and species richness in amphibians. The American Naturalist, 170: 86 - 106.

Wieters, E. 2001. Marine macroecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16: 67 - 69.

Willig, M. y S. Lyons. 1998. An analytical model of latitudinal gradients of species richness with a empirical test for marsupials and bats in a New World. Oikos, 81: 93 - 98.

Cómo citar
García-R, J. C., & Cárdenas, H. (2018). Efecto de rapoport en las ranas terrarana de américa continental: gradientes de riqueza latitudinal y altitudinal. Revista Novedades Colombianas, 10(1). Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unicauca.edu.co/index.php/novedades/article/view/1175
Publicado
2018-11-02