Bioestimulación de frijol guajiro y su simbiosis con Rhizobium por ácidos húmicos y Bacillus mycoides

  • Nelson Osvaldo Valero Valero Grupo de Investigación en Microbiología Agrícola y Ambiental - Universidad Popular del Cesar https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9186-6245
  • Claudia Marcela Vergel Castro
  • Yeison Enrique Ustate Morales Grupo de Investigación DESTACAR - Universidad de La Guajira
  • Liliana Cecilia Gómez Gómez Grupo de Investigación en Microbiología Agrícola y Ambiental - Universidad Popular del Cesar
Palabras clave: Vigna unguiculata L., Rhizobium sp., Guajira, bioestimulantes, Guajira, Lombricompost, Lignito, Suelo Semiárido, Nodulación, Caprino, Carbón Pobre

Resumen

La bioestimulación es una tecnología pertinente en apoyo a la intensificación de la agricultura ecológica, principalmente en suelos de zonas marginales donde los tensores ambientales mantienen a las plantas bajo condiciones de estrés permanente en detrimento de la productividad. Los bioestimulantes promueven en la planta cambios fisiológicos y morfológicos conducentes a una mejor adaptación en condiciones adversas e incrementos en el crecimiento y productividad. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto bioestimulante de Bacillus mycoides BSC25 y ácidos húmicos derivados de lombricompost de estiércol de caprino (AH-L) y de un carbón pobre tipo lignito (AH-C), sobre el frijol guajiro (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). El trabajo comprendió: 1) la comprobación de la presencia de rizóbios en el suelo, con capacidad de nodular V. unguiculata, y caracterización molecular de una cepa aislada, 2) experimentos bajo condiciones controladas en cámara de crecimiento vegetal, para comprobar la estimulación del crecimiento temprano del frijol tratado con AH-L, AH-C o B. mycoides y la aplicación conjunta AH-B. mycoides, 3) un experimento de bioestimulacion con AH-L, AH-C y B. mycoides bajo condiciones de campo, en un suelo semiárido de la media Guajira. Adicionalmente se determinó la identidad química de los AH, relacionada con su bioactividad. Se encontró que en el suelo persistía una población de Rhizobium sp capaz de nodular el frijol guajiro, el tratamiento con los agentes bioestimulantes favorece el crecimiento de la planta e incrementa el grado de nodulación por la población nativa de rizóbios, lo cual sugiere la conveniencia de promover esta tecnología para mejorar la producción del cultivo de frijol guajiro.

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Cómo citar
Valero Valero, N. O., Vergel Castro, C. M., Ustate Morales, Y. E., & Gómez Gómez, L. C. (2021). Bioestimulación de frijol guajiro y su simbiosis con Rhizobium por ácidos húmicos y Bacillus mycoides. Biotecnología En El Sector Agropecuario Y Agroindustrial, 19(2), 154-169. https://doi.org/10.18684/bsaa.v19.n2.2021.1608
Publicado
2021-03-11
Sección
Artículos de Investigaciòn