Efecto de la inoculación Rhizophagus irregularis y de la fertilización fosfatada sobre la comunidad local de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares

  • Yuli Marcela Ordoñez Castañeda Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • Isabel Cristina Ceballos rojas Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá
  • Alia Rodriguez Villate Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá
  • Ian Sanders Universidad de Lausanne
Palabras clave: Hongos Formadores de Micorrizas Arbusculares (HFMA), Rhizophagus irregularis, diversidad, Manihot esculenta, fertilización fosfatada, Inoculación, Comunidades de HFMA, Agricultura sostenible, Biofertilizantes, Esporas

Resumen

Los Hongos Formadores de Micorrizas Arbusculares (HFMA) son microorganismos cruciales en los suelos agrícolas por el efecto positivo que tienen sobre la movilización de uno de los nutrientes fundamentales para las plantas como es el fósforo (P). Los contenidos disponibles de P en los suelos de la Orinoquía Colombiana son bajos, por lo que la fertilización con fosfato es indispensable en cultivos comerciales como la yuca. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la fertilización fosfatada y de la inoculación con Rhizophagus irregularis (hongo modelo de los HFMA), sobre las comunidades residentes de este grupo de hongos. La diversidad de los HFMA fue descrita a partir de las esporas presentes en la rizósfera de plantas de yuca mantenidas bajo condiciones agronómicas tradicionales. La riqueza y diversidad de las comunidades de HFMA se afectaron por la interacción de los factores analizados. En términos de estructura de la comunidad de HFMA en la rizósfera de las plantas de yuca, se detectaron cambios en la abundancia de los géneros Glomus y Acaulospora; asociados respectivamente a la inoculación y a la fertilización fosfatada. Los hallazgos de este estudio sugieren que prácticas agrícolas como la aplicación de fertilizante fosfatado y la inoculación con R. irregularis, son procesos que pueden afectar el ensamblaje de la comunidad de estos hongos, así también la diversidad de las comunidades de HFMA nativas en suelos de la Orinoquía Colombiana. Se requieren investigaciones adicionales para entender la relación entre la composición de las comunidades de HFMA y la respuesta de la planta hospedera.

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Cómo citar
Ordoñez Castañeda, Y. M., Ceballos rojas, I. C., Rodriguez Villate, A. ., & Sanders, I. (2021). Efecto de la inoculación Rhizophagus irregularis y de la fertilización fosfatada sobre la comunidad local de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares. Biotecnología En El Sector Agropecuario Y Agroindustrial, 19(2), 184–200. https://doi.org/10.18684/bsaa.v19.n2.2021.1850
Publicado
2021-04-24
Sección
Artículos de Investigaciòn