Sostenibilidad en la industria cervecera: una revisión crítica de los residuos generados y su gestión

  • Angie Paola Santacruz Salas Estudiante de maestría en Ciencias Ambientales de la Universidad Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho"
  • Maria Lucia Pereira Antunes Profesora de la Univesidad Estadula Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología
  • Santiago Gomez Herrera Universidad Mariana, Facultad de Ingeniería, Programa de Ingeniería Ambiental, M. Sc. Ciencias Ambientales.
  • Jorge Alberto Velez Lozano Director del Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Sistemas Agroforestales de la Universidad de Nariño
  • Sandro Donnini Mancini Profesor de la Universidad Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología
Palabras clave: Industria cervecera, Residuos agroindustriales, Economia circular, Sustentabilidad

Resumen

En el sector de fabricación de bebidas, la cerveza ocupa una posición estratégica puesto que es la bebida alcohólica más consumida en el mundo. Sin embargo, para su producción son utilizadas grandes cantidades de materia prima que posteriormente terminan convertidas en toneladas de desechos, los cuales traen repercusiones al medio ambiente, a la economía y a la sociedad. Bajo este panorama, han surgido diferentes alternativas de interés en pro de su reincorporación en la cadena productiva, que integran principios de la economía circular al mercado de la cerveza. Por ello, el presente artículo hace una revisión de cada uno de los subproductos generados en esta industria y de los posibles usos que han sido reportados hasta el momento en la literatura, además de ofrecer una descripción actual del mercado de la cerveza y de su proceso de elaboración. Los resultados de esta investigación muestran que en la fabricación de esta bebida fermentada son generados principalmente 4 residuos: bagazo de malta, trub, levadura de cerveza y tierra diatomácea. Estos materiales se caracterizan por tener una amplia gama de propiedades físico-químicas que permiten que su reaprovechamiento sea versátil, por lo que es posible aplicarlos en diferentes campos, como en el ambiental, aportando en la remoción de contaminantes; en el campo agropecuario, como alimento animal; en el campo civil, como sustituto de materiales, entre otros. En general, se prevé que esta revisión sea un referente para el sector de la cerveza, dado que presenta una compilación de múltiples técnicas y modificaciones que podrían dar un valor agregado a los subproductos de esta industria.

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Biografía del autor/a

Angie Paola Santacruz Salas, Estudiante de maestría en Ciencias Ambientales de la Universidad Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho"

Ingeniera Ambiental de la Universidad de Nariño, actualmente está cursando su maestría en Ciencias Ambientales en la Universidad Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP/ICT - Sorocaba) y es becada por la Fundación Ceiba en cooperación con la Gobernación de Nariño. Tiene experiencia en sistemas de gestión ambiental, gestión de residuos sólidos y tratamiento de efluentes. 

Maria Lucia Pereira Antunes, Profesora de la Univesidad Estadula Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología

Graduada en Física por la Universidad de São Paulo y, magister y doctora en Física por la Universidad de São Paulo. Actualmente es profesora de Ingeniería Ambiental de la Universidad Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP/ICT - Sorocaba). Orientadora de maestrìa y doctorado del programa de posgrado en Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental de la UNESP. Fue coordinadora del curso de pregrado en Ingeniería Ambiental. Tiene experiencia en el área de Fisica, actuando principalmente en los siguientes temas: valoración de resíduos, barro rojo, alúminas, contaminación atmosférica, material particulado y educación ambiental. 

Santiago Gomez Herrera , Universidad Mariana, Facultad de Ingeniería, Programa de Ingeniería Ambiental, M. Sc. Ciencias Ambientales.

Universidad Mariana, Facultad de Ingeniería, Programa de Ingeniería Ambiental, M. Sc. Ciencias Ambientales. Pasto, Colombia.

Jorge Alberto Velez Lozano, Director del Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Sistemas Agroforestales de la Universidad de Nariño

Ingeniero Agroforestal de la Universidad de Nariño, magister en Ciencias Agrarias con énfasis de suelos por la Universidad Nacional - Universidad de Nariño y Doctor en Agroecología por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Actualmente, es Director y profesor del Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Sistemas Agroforestales. Tiene experiencia en estadistica, agroecología y suelos. 

Sandro Donnini Mancini, Profesor de la Universidad Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología

Graduado en Ingeniería de Materiales por la Universidad Federal de São Carlos (UFScar), magister y doctor en Ciencia e Ingeniería de los Materiales y Especialista en Periodismo Científico por la Unicamp. Actualmente es profesor en la Universidad Estadual Paulista (UNESP/ICT - Sorocaba). Tiene experiencia en el área de Ingeniería Ambiental e Ingeniería de Materiales con énfasis en polímeros, principalmente en el tema de reciclaje de materiales presentes en los residuos sólidos urbanos. 

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Cómo citar
Santacruz Salas, A. P., Antunes, M. L. P. ., Gomez Herrera , S., Velez Lozano, J. A., & Mancini, S. D. (2022). Sostenibilidad en la industria cervecera: una revisión crítica de los residuos generados y su gestión. Biotecnología En El Sector Agropecuario Y Agroindustrial, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.18684/rbsaa.v.n.2167
Publicado
2022-09-16
Sección
Artículos de Revisiòn