Ultrasonido en el procesamiento (homogenización, extracción y secado) de alimentos

  • Yesenia Campo Vera Instituto Superior de Educación Rural.
  • Víctor Gélvez Ordoñes Universidad de Pamplona
  • Alfredo Adolfo Ayala Aponte Universidad del Valle.
Palabras clave: Cavitación, Conservación, Ondas acústicas, Tecnología verde

Resumen

En los últimos años el uso del ultrasonido en el procesamiento de los alimentos se ha incrementado debido a las ventajas que presenta sobre los procesos convencionales por la reducción de tiempos y temperatura, mezclado efectivo, aumento de la transferencia de masa y energía, la reducción de los gradientes térmicos y de concentración, extracción selectiva, una respuesta más rápida al control de procesos de extracción, aumento de la tasa de producción, eliminación de microorganismos y enzimas sin destruir los nutrientes de los alimentos. Además, de considerarse una tecnología limpia, aplicable en las diferentes fases del procesamiento de alimentos como: secado, homogeneización y extracción. El ultrasonido de baja potencia (alta frecuencia) se utiliza para el seguimiento de la composición y propiedades fisicoquímicas de los componentes del alimento y el de alta potencia (baja frecuencia) induce cambios mecánicos, físicos químicos y bioquímicos por acción de la cavitación, que soporta muchas operaciones de procesamiento de alimentos. Esta revisión resume la aplicación del ultrasonido en el procesamiento de homogenización, extracción y secado en alimentos, con el fin de conocer los aspectos generales: definición, mecanismos, efectos; aplicaciones y futuras tendencias de aplicación en la industria alimentaria.

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Biografía del autor/a

Yesenia Campo Vera, Instituto Superior de Educación Rural.
Facultad de Ingenierías e informática, Grupo de investigación en ciencia, tecnología e innovación. Magister en ciencias, tecnología de los alimentos.
Víctor Gélvez Ordoñes, Universidad de Pamplona
Facultad de Ingenierías y Arquitectura, Grupo de investigación en Innovaciones Alimentarias. Doctor Ciencia y tecnología de Alimentos.
Alfredo Adolfo Ayala Aponte, Universidad del Valle.
Escuela de Ingeniería de Alimentos, Grupo de investigación de procesos agroalimentarios y biotecnológicos. Doctor Ciencia y tecnología de Alimentos.

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Cómo citar
Campo Vera, Y., Gélvez Ordoñes, V., & Ayala Aponte, A. A. (2018). Ultrasonido en el procesamiento (homogenización, extracción y secado) de alimentos. Biotecnología En El Sector Agropecuario Y Agroindustrial, 16(1), 102–113. https://doi.org/10.18684/bsaa.v16n1.1150
Publicado
2018-01-01
Sección
Artículos de Revisiòn